Amsterdam Science Park is where early attempts to integrate cryptography with electronic money were made by David Chaum (Chaum.com) (inventor of many cryptographic protocols. His 1981 paper, "Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses, and Digital Pseudonyms", laid the groundwork for the field of anonymous communications research. For example the predecessor of TOR: Mix networks), through his companies DigiCash (anonymous transactions) and ecash (anonymous electronic cash system), which used cryptography to anonymise electronic money transactions.
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